Changing Environment and History in
Nigeria: A Study of Federal Capital Territory Abuja Since 1976
- W. ABUBAKAR
Conceptual issues arise in any meaningful attempt in addressing the relevance of environment to historical development. First and foremost is the issue of how to correctly conceptualize the terms history and environment.1 We can also understand Abuja within the contexts of urban environment which is diverse and complex. History is therefore an important branch of knowledge in the study of man and society. History is defined in various forms by different scholars and philosophers. It is within this multifaceted outlook of history that it is often distinguished between history as a process and as a study. Emphasis in historical discourse is always laid on “man and his environment.”2 Other postulations emphasize the study of nature and man which are the by product of protracted development within environment.3
R.G. Collingwood mirrored history as an enquiry into the actions of human beings done in the past through constant reflection.4 Arthur Marwick on the other hand depicts history to mean man’s attempt to describe and interpret the past,5 while Herbert Butterfield emphasizes the application of a w holistic approaches for historical d iscourse and historiographical studies.6 History at the second level as an acad emic d iscipline; is the reconstruction, stud y and explanation of these changes which humanity has undergone. This explained why E.H. Carr defined history at this level as “a continuous process of interaction between the historian and his facts, an unending dialogue between the present and the past”.7 History therefore remained an organized and critical study of such past activities of human beings as had produced significant effects on subsequent course of events. Ibn Khaldun’s explanation of history begins from a philosophical point of view, concerning the nature of man and human society. It is through this that he explained the human civilizations and environment of his time.8
Just the way history is defined by different scholars from different perspectives, environment is equally viewed from different perspectives. A wholistic approach perceives environment as the sum total of both the “tangible”9 and the “intangible”10 world which surround, influence and affect man and is in turn influenced and affected by man. That is to say that the sum total of all the social, biological, physical and chemical influences have significant and detectful effect on man.11 Man in his environment is surrounded by an infinite variety of objects and phenomena ranging from invisible elementary particles to gigantic ones. It is therefore very important to emphasize that it is the ramification of this relationship between man and his environment which is dialectical in nature that gives room to historical developments whose events carry some historical relevance. It is also against this background that observations cannot readily be used to interpret past environments, necessary to consider geological, climatic and weathering histories as well as physiological development of the structures being used as evidence to infer past environmental conditions.12 By and large, historical developments are nothing but products of the dialectical processes arising from the relationship that exists from the interaction between man and man, not about man as an individual with his activities but man in wider perspectives in his environment. Questions are always generated as to whether the environment is a determinant or product of history?
Confusion is always spread particularly when deterministic perspective of environment are applied in explaining historical developments.13 It is in this apparent confusion that more perspectives on environmental and historical studies are gradually becoming very serious. Many studies tried to expose past civilizations and emphasized how environment played a crucial role in their rise and development.14 In Nigeria for instance, considering the relevance of environment in view of the multi-dimensional nature of history, it is very clear that environment represents only one category among the multiple forces that affect and influence human history.15
Since history has to do with change and the effects of change overtime, the natural environment is equally subject to change in spite of its indispensability historically speaking.16 Naturally, even the rocks changes, its chemical composition, the soil is not permanent, it also undergoes through erosion. The rivers, deserts as well as other variables of environment are naturally affected but it is the radical transforming influence of change of the environment by man to suit him that above all informs the essence of historical change and in this sense having an edge over and rendering environment a product of history and man, a determinant in the production of history.17 It is therefore very important to maintain that history is the activities of man without which there is no history, no historical development, but these activities of man also must have to be related to his environment.
The urban environment might be considered the opposite of the natural environment, since it concentrates so many people, buildings, and economic activities and their supporting infrastructure such as roads, water pipes, drains, electricity and telephone systems. In larger cities, central business districts, downtown areas, and industrial estates may have little visibility that can be associated with the natural environment. Human interventions have so radically shaped their environment that they seem far removed from natural processes and resources. Other parts of cities, however, seem less removed—for instance parks, green belts, rivers, coastlines, or residential areas with large gardens and plenty of open space.
However, all urban centres remain dependent on natural resources and on natural processes for disposing of their wastes. While all urban centres share certain environmental characteristics, their size, built forms, and spatial configurations are also very varied. While it is usually economic and political factors that determine a city’s location and size, its buildings and their location and organization within neighborhoods and the wider city are also much influenced by characteristics of the site, climatic conditions, and resource availabilities (especially building materials and fresh water).
Each professional discipline brings its own concerns to addressing environmental problems in urban areas. The different disciplinary perspectives are much needed to make sense of the complex interweaving of natural and built elements within urban centres and of the climatic, social, economic, and political factors that influence them.
The Nature of Abuja Environment before the Establishment of the FCT in 1976
In this section, we shall discuss physical, social and political environment that existed before the establishment of the Federal Capital Territory. The political environment of the area could be traced from the pre-colonial period when there were “various groups found in the area, especially those of Koro,
Gwandara, Gbagyi, Gade, Bassa, Ganagana, Ibirra, Hausa and Fulani”.18 During the 19th century, Abuja witnessed a rapid transformation. By implication, the old settlements were fused into what was later established and called the Abuja Emirate.19 By 1899, these areas were placed under a high commissioner who was empowered to make some laws by proclamation. The protectorate w as further d ivid ed into fourteen administrative provinces.20 These included Sokoto and Gando, Kano with Katagum and Katsina, Bornu, Nupe, Kabba, Ilorin, Bauchi, Zaria, Kontangora, Borgu, Bassa, Nassarawa, Muri and Yola.21 During this period, Abuja was a division under Nassarawa Province alongside Keffi, Lafia and Durroro.
The headquarter of Abuja was situated at Suleja. Thus, the political changes continued to be enormous in Abuja until 1960 w hen ind epend ence w as achieved . The political environment continued to influence other changes within the area until 1976 when the phenomenon became by and large an urbanization process in the sense that it became a modern settlement that was different from what previously existed.
Previously, Abuja environment was characterized by hills and huge outcropping of granite rocks of rivers, gorges and streams, forests and open spaces.22 These features were interspersed by giving out a picture of rugged terrain with slopes and valleys folding into each other. The Northern frontiers were also open and plain with shrub as well as tree like plants widely spread all over the place. In a write up on the nature of the environment in 1940, the Secretary of the Northern Provinces noted that “in variety and splendour, of scenery and general interests and climate Abuja has few if any rivals in the Northern provinces.”23 These and other similar descriptions of the area abound in most colonial writings that pertained the environment of Abuja during the colonial period. The vegetation of the area combined both the features of the Savanna and those of the forest belts the hydrology of the area determined the volume of water flooding the streams and rivers in the area. These streams suffered less pollution partly because “there were no environmental problems, it was easy to mobilize citizens for public work and also to practice an efficient system of waste management”.24 Thus, the environment of Abuja determined the economic activities as well as other subsidiary occupations. The settlement pattern of the area was also influenced by the environment. For example, most settlements were erected within the forests, nominally at the base of the hills.25 The topography of the area was largely a determining factor of transportation and other economic activities.
The analysis provided above clearly unfolds the relevance of environment to history and culture of the Abuja people and how that affected their world view over the years. Similarly, highlighting the relevance of the environment in shaping the historical processes as it is central to demographic changes.
Establishment of Federal Capital Territory and Changing Environment since 1976
Changes are common in most African cities and societies. These changes brought about the transformation in both the structure and the character of their life. In concrete historical terms, it is argued that societies generally are not static, but dynamic. Coquery-Vidrovitch argued that, “most African cities grew and remained close to the place where they first emerged, sometimes centuries ago”.26 Going by this position it means that all histories are historically prone to changes which might be directly or indirectly linked to environmental factors. Furthermore, historical changes come about as a result of cultural values and ideas which are further informed by cumulative identities producing a mono-cultural identity. In FCT, Abuja changes in the cultural outlook are noticeably different from what hitherto existed in the area.
The physical environment also changed because man’s activities continued to affect environment in significant ways. Most recent studies on the FCT, Abuja have clearly shown that its establishment in 1976 marked the beginning of a new era not only to the history of the people but to the environment generally. For example, the criterion used for the selection of Abuja was environmentally informed.
It is clear that environmental factors dominated the reasons behind the selection of Abuja as the new federal capital of the nation. The Government of General Yakubu Gowon was overthrown on 29 July 1975 in a military coup and General Murtala Ramat Mohammed became the new head of state. It was Ramat Mohammed that laid the foundation for the creation of a new Federal Capital Territory by establishing an ad-hoc committees and subsequently promulgated Decree No. 6 of 1976.27 The Federal Capital Territory was excise from three different states in 1976 (Niger, Plateau and Kwara), with Niger state contributing 6,328.4 sq.km (79.1 percent) of the land area, Plateau and Kwara contributing 1,313.4 sq.km (16.4 percent) and 358.2 sq.km (4.5 percent) respectively. The development of designating Abuja as federal capital has resulted to series of changes with series of infrastructural development marking the beginning and the intensification of large movement of people in search of opportunities.
As the seat of the federal government, Abuja continued to attract a substantial number of people who came for either business, conferences or meetings. This development gradually witnessed several changes. From 1976-1980, most of the changes that occurred were not phenomenal or rapid but gradual. For example, the total population by 1977 was recorded at about 125,000 distributed among the 845 villages many of which had population of less than 20.28 The population figures rose slowly to 131,525 in 1981.29 The growth of the population is always attributed to the fact that “the building of the city began in 1980 and by 1981, only the construction workers were actually in the city.”30 It also showed that the movement of the FCT from Lagos to Abuja was not yet certain and this made many people not to be certain in their movement to Abuja. Another reason was that, certain economic incentives that would have encouraged business groups were lacking. Even when the movement started in 1981, it was only few civil servants that moved into the virgin city. With this movement, changes were still very marginal.
It w as until in 1991 that Abuja started w itnessing phenomenal increase in its population and other activities. For instance, in the 1991 census, the population of the FCT was estimated at 378,671 with the capital city alone having a population of 212,854.31 Today, the estimate of the population is more than 3.5 million.32
Another area that received wide ranging changes in the FCC is the environment. These environmental changes came about as a result of the massive construction activities which affected both the natural environmental and cultural environment of the territory. The vegetation of Abuja is today been destroyed due to the activities of man, like indiscriminate construction of housing estate and roads without respecting the Abuja master plan. Pollution of air and water remain very noticeable both within and outside the FCC environment. This has also undermined the environmental conservation which was initially embodied in the master plan. Contrary to the visions and the wishes of the master plan, FCC remains a violation of the master plan. The initial master plan of the FCC came about following closely the history of most administrative cities of Nigeria.33 In that regards, Abuja was meant to foster the standards of settlement development appropriate not only to the current Nigerian culture and aesthetics but also to the needs and aspirations of future generations of Nigerian people.
For example, ornamental parks and open spaces w ith indigenous and exotic species were meant to be visible every where in the City.34
Beside these environmental and demographic changes, social changes featured prominently. Changes in urban centers are always informed by the expression of modernity and development.35 The general characteristics of urban social change can be epitomized by a gradual and quantitative evolution from a lower to a higher stage through increasing specialization and functional interdependence, especially between institutions and people. Most fundamentally, the process of change and the expression of social continuity through accommodation represents pivots of change.36
An analysis of specific government activities such as the provision of infrastructures in the past and present clearly offered a process and picture of change. Some of the infrastructures that existed in the past though in different form and magnitude witnessed a gradual increase from its marginal level to an appreciable level. These changes are informed by the changing character of the FCC both in economic and demographic terms. Infrastructural provisioning is informed by their patterns and framework. In FCC, their provision is influenced by the spatial structure of the economy.
The transport system in the FCT, utilized its road and air even though the railway infrastructure is provided in the Abuja master plan, it is not in existence. From 1991, the road provided access and transportation link between the city and its satellite towns which are viewed as important centers of production.37 These roads network in the FCT, Abuja transformed itself in the recent years. Unlike the pre-1976 road network, which were small and provided by the British colonial authority and the post-colonial governments, the present network are characteristically reflecting the nature of the modern society. For instance, the dual carriage ways of Zuba-Abaji highway (Airport road and the outer northern expressway), are federal government roads. Secondary roads consisting of Bwari-Abuja, Karu-Karshi and Kuje-Gwagwalada are all area council roads. At present, the government is still constructing more roads to ease the congestion and reduce traffic holdups at AbujaNyanya and Maraba road.
Abuja is also regarded as one of the fastest growing cities with characteristics of urban creativity. This creativity is gradually transforming the agricultural economy to an urban based economy that encouraged both massive and spatial expansion. All these changes are facilitated by the provision of social services like electricity, telecommunications and water supply. For example, electricity, telecommunications and water supply are the most basic needs of life and are highly essential for successful living as well as viable productivity. For instance, without water, life could hardly exist, and without electricity and telecommunication, the mobility and the creativity of life will be grossly undermined. Both these social services are crucial, not only for urbanization processes but for life itself. The fundamental underpinnings that touched on the cruciality of these key social services and urban facilities have to do with the fact that both are involved in bringing about social change. In Abuja for example, the changes that are prominent revolves around these services. Unlike in the past when these services were very marginal, today it is available though not adequate but the changes are becoming very rapid. Compared to most urban centers in Nigeria, where most of the population has less than 45 percent has access to both electricity, telecommunication and water supply services, over 85 percent of the population in the FCC inhabitants has access to these services. There are also both private and public sectors providing these services to the people. The services provided by these infrastructures produced changes that are structurally affecting every sector of the Abuja urban economy.
In the area of electricity between 1986-1988 the FCT was connected to the National grid through a 132 KVA double line circuit drawn from Kainji dam hydro-power station. All the then four Area councils were connected to the national grid. Also connected were Karu, Nyanyan, Kwali, Rubochi and Bwari. The Gwagwalada booster and substations were commissioned. Other distribution sub-stations that were commissioned included those of Maitama, Wuse, Gwarinpa/ Jabi, Abuja Airport and the proposed Idu Industrial area. Due to the profound changes that were taking place in Abuja, by 1991 the electrical installations which covers both reticulation and the provision of sub-stations was 95 percent, 85 percent and 60 percent completed in Maitama, Asokoro and Wuse I districts respectively. The Gwarinpa/ Jabi and Idu industrial areas were provided with a 2.5 MVA and 33.11 KV substation.38 Also Wuse district was provided with 33.11 KV substation, while the Abuja Airport was provided with 7.5 MVA with 33.11 KV installed for the area. In Asokoro districts, where permanent electrification is almost completed, temporary overhead lines with over ten distribution transformers to ease the problem of power supply in the area.39 Unlike in the past, the central area and the Garki districts was having 16 distribution transformers installed to provide street lighting and power supply to both residential and office housing units. The Abaji internal reticulation works and Maitama district substation were also completed and commissioned. In the periphery areas of the FCT, Abuja electricity generation and distribution equally got a boost. The supply of electricity continued to receive attention from the federal government, and this in turn produced some changes that were very profound.
Post and telecommunication facilities also witnessed some drastic changes. Like electricity, the provision and distribution of telecommunication received hard biting changes. For example, NITEL was responsible for equipping telephone exchanges building and providing the underground cables, while the FCDA was responsible for building the offices to be equipped by NTEL.40 The reforms in the telecommunication industry led to more changes because private companies like MTN, V-Mobile (CELTEL) and many others became involved. Today, all the economic activities within the FCC are boosted by telecommunication services.
Water supply in the Abuja is feed from the Lower Usman Dam with a capacity of about 1.4 km long 45 km high and impounds 100 million cubic meters of water from River Usuman. The dam was commissioned in 1987 with a treatment plant d esigned to have a capacity of 5,000m3/ hr or 120,000m3/ day. Storage tanks located on the periphery of the city include two ground level tanks of 12,000m3 capacity with a pumping station each and two 5,400m3 capacity high level tanks. Today, water supply is distributed to almost all the periphery stations in Abuja. This contrary to what hitherto existed in the FCT area.
The Impact of the Changes on FCT, Abuja
The changes that were brought to bear on Abuja are very enormous. Throughout human history, man’s necessary adoptive responses gave rise to an increasing and better ordered knowledge of environment, whether material, biological and human. The development and the use of techniques by early man themselves brought about decisive altering of the environment and have driven man on to further fundamental changes in the patterns of life. This clearly shows that with new techniques, man enlarged the area of the usable or controllable environment.
The establishment of the Federal Capital Territory in 1976 marked another phase in the history of the town. Prior to this period, the city’s internal structures were not distorted, but were well preserved. This was as a result of the fact that man’s activities were not particularly harmful to the surrounding environment. However, by the beginning of 1980s when the government started massive construction activities, the impact of the changes on Abuja environment became very noticeable. By 1990, when the Federal Capital was finally relocated from Lagos to Abuja, the town started wearing a new look.
Administrative headquarters usually attract large number of people either for trading opportunities and other benefits which in turn results to profound changes; this is true of most political centers in Africa and other parts of the world. In some of these cities, the development result to rapid changes due to the process of growth and expansion. In the case of FCT, Abuja the final relocation of the Federal Capital Territory from Lagos to Abuja marked a turning point in the history of the city. This development gradually made all the groups that hitherto inhabited the area of Abuja to interact and exist under one political control.
It became obvious that those groups such as Rubawa, Afawa, Yeskwa, Gbagyi, Gade, Koro, Nupe, and the Hausa groups with their varying settlements patterns gradually disappeared paving way to a more unified identity produced by the growing urban culture. Today, the changes in the FCT have gradually overtaken what used to be the foundation of the Abuja. The economy of Abuja which previously remained largely agrarian equally changed into an urban based economy.
The situation of Abuja before 1976 was not as striking as most development programmes both at the state and the local levels were either stalled or completely ignored. However, development only started picking up following the creation of new states in 1976.41 Betw een 1976-1980, there w as an expansion in both social and economic structures. The Federal Government embarked on both the rehabilitation of the old infrastructural facilities and the provision of new ones to provide services to the people of the town.42 The water works in Abuja was expanded with a new dam constructed at lower Usman Dam. In the case of electricity, the demand increased and overlaps the supply which is due to the rapid changes. Most of the sub-urban settlements such as Gwagwalada, Kuje, Abaji, Nyanyan, Kubwa, and other settlements are facing acute shortages in electricity supply. The reason behind this clearly revealed that, there has been a gradual erosion of people from different occupations to the FCT, Abuja. One obvious result of this development is the emergence of more business ventures and other activities that have overtaken farming which used to be the major preoccupation of the people.
In a similar vein, the corresponding rise in the level of education among the people of Nigeria, many were absorbed in the vacancies that existed in the Federal Capital Territory.43 Due to the structural and political changes in Abuja, the population had risen to a phenomenal level of 378,671 based on the 1991 census.44 To meet up with the numerous economic needs of the large emerging population, more shops, canteens, and supermarkets all sprang up in all corners of the FCT, Abuja. A striking feature in the composition of the population is that majority of the people are not government employees but others who got attracted to the booming and the changing urban economy.
The influx of many people of varying backgrounds into Abuja also led to a change in the settlement pattern. The former indigenous pattern of settlements was completely altered, leading to the expansion in the size of the settlement with migrants groups. The changes in the FCT, Abuja generated and created profound social problems. The native communities that hitherto inhabited Abuja area are also displaced. This came about as a result of government construction activities. The increased in the population also created social problems such as the overstretching of facilities like electricity and water supply which are regarded as the basic needs of life. Other social problems such as prostitution and alcoholism also become inevitable. Today, Abuja has a lot of beer parlors, hotels, brothels, guest inns that are found all over the city.
The conclusion in this chapter clearly reveals that there is a dialectical relationship between history and environment. Also very fundamental is that, environment serves as the dominant theater of historical activities. In Nigeria, the history of most communities is influenced by the nature of their environment. In Abuja, the history of the area has been undergoing some fundamental changes since the creation of the emirate system. These changes further became more noticeable when the colonial administration was introduced in the area following the overthrow of the emirate system. Furthermore, the more developed areas were found to cluster largely in the areas where the federal capital is located today. By 1976, the changes in direction and contents became more obvious and by 1990s and beyond, the impacts of the changes began to be felt very serious. Thus, the creation of the FCT is generally perceived as having a great potentiality of serving as a major thrust for rapid development of the long neglected area of history in Northern Nigeria.
- There are series of studies on environment and history at the globalscale. Each of the study touched on issues of global environmental significance. For a detailed analysis reference can be made from the following: Donald Worster (1996) “The two Cultures Revisited: Environmental Sciences” in Journal of Environment and History, Vol.2, 1996, the White Horse Press, U.K. pp3-14, Kenneth. R. Olwig (1996)
“Environmental History and Construction of Nature and Landscape: The Case of Landscaping of the Jutland Heath” in Journal of Environment and History, Vol,2,1996.pp15-38, A.R, Main
(1996) “Ghosts of the Past: Where Does Environmental History
Begin?” in Journal of Environment and History, Vol.2, pp97-114,
Ellsworth Huntinton (1937) “Geography and History” in The
Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science Vol.3, No. 4 (Nov.,1937) pp565-572, Graig M. Pease, Russell Lande and J.J, Bull
(1989) “A Model of Population Growth, Dispersal Evolution in Changing Environment” in Ecology, Vol.70, N0.6 (Dec.,1989) pp1657-1664, Samuel P.Hays (2001) “Towards Integration in Environmental History” in The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 70, No.1 (Feb.2001) pp59-67, Martin V. Melosi(1993) “Public History and the Environment” in The Public Historian,Vol.15, No. 4 (Autumn, 1993) pp10-20, and Robert B. Platt (et-al) (1964) “The Importance of Environment to Life” in Bio-Science Vol.14, No.7 Ecology (July., 1964) pp25-29.
- Vassily Krapivin (1985) ABC of Social and Political Knowledge: What is Dialectical Materialsim? ( Moscow: ProgressPublishers) p87.
- Vassily Krapivin(1985)…p87.
- G, Collingwood(1968) The Idea of History (London: Oxford University Press) pp7-9.
- Arthur Marwick(1971) The Nature of History (Lodon: Macmillan) p25.
- Hebert Butterfield (1969) Man on His Past: The Study of the History of the Historical Scholarship (London: Cambridge Univ. Press) pp1-8.
- H. Carr (1964) What is History? (London: Penguin Books) p30 8. Ibn Khaldun(1967) The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History Vol. 1 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul) pp87-308.
- Tangible have such variables like mountains, rivers, lakes, soil types and others.
10.Intangibles bhere means Ideas, incidence of epidemics, diseases and so on
11.Terwase J, Mile (2000) “Environment and Historical Development: An Analysis” in Benue Valley Journal of Humanities Vol.3No1, January-April 2000.
12.Cited from the abstract of A.R, Main (1996) “ Ghosts of the Past”
13.A more vivid information can be ontained M.D, Langan (et-al) (1980)
A Golden Thread: 250 Years of Solar Architecture and Tecnology
(NewYork:Van Nostrand and Reinhold)
14 S. Diarra(1981) “Historical Geography: Physical Aspects” in J. Kizerbo(ed) General History of Africa Vol.1(Paris: UNESCO), G.J, Afolabi (1966) Yoruba Culture : A Geographical Analysis (London:
University of London Press), Arnold. J, Toynbell (1955) A Study of
History Vol.1 (London: Oxford University Press), Guha
Ramachandra (2002) Environmentalism: A Global History (New Delhi:
Oxford university Press), P.S, Hays (1998) Explorations in Environmental History: Essays (Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg), J.D. Hughes (1975) Ecology in Ancient Civilizations (New Mexico:
University of New Mexico Press).
15.See Mile Terwase(2000).
16.See Mile Terwase(2000).
17.Sputnik on “ Man and Nature” Digest of Soviet Press, May 1985, No.5, p43.
18.Ibrahim Umaru (2006) “The Development of a Federal Capital
Territory-Abuja” in Hakeem Ibikunle Tijani (ed) Nigeria’s Urban History: Past and Present (Lancham: University Press of America) p228.
19.There are many studies undertaking on these issues, for more detailed analysis, see: Isa Bala(1984) “ The Role of the Gbagi’s in the Hausa State of Abuja, 1807-1979″ (BA, Dissertation, Bayero University Kano BUK), S.A, Bako(1989) “Historical Development of Abuja Town c1850-1979” ( MA, Thesis Bayero University Kano, BUK) and A. B, Shuiabu (1985) “An Economic History of Abuja in the 19th and 20th Centuries: A Case Study of the Pottery Industry” (BA, Dissertation Bayero University Kano, BUK).
- Great Britain: Colonial Office(1900) Military Report on Northern Nigeria, Vol.1.
21.Great Britain : Colonial Office(1900).
22.Hassan and Shuiabu (1962) A Chronicle of Abuja (Lagos: AUP) Pviii.
23.S.A, Bako (1989) …p38.
24.Toyin Falola (1989) “ The Cities” in Y.B, Usman (ed) Nigeria Since Independence: The first 25 Years Vol.1(Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books(Nig.) Ltd) p214.
- J.A, Hocking (1977) “20th Century Evolution of Rural Settlements in Abuja Area” in Savanna, Vol.6, No.1(June; 1977) p57.
26 Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch (1991) “The Process of Urbanization in Africa( From the Origins to the Beginning of Independence) in African Studies Review, Vol. 34, No1 ( April., 1991) p35.
- Ibrahim Umaru (2006)…pp235-236.
- I. Abumere(2004) “Abuja: The Dream and Reality” In I.B. Bello-
Imam and Mike Obadan (eds) Democratic Governance and Development Management in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic 1999-2003 (Ibadan: Centre for Local Government and Rural Development Studies, Ibadan) p498.
29 S.I. Abumere (1984) “The Future Population of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja” in Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, Vol.26. No.3, pp287-313.
30.S.I.Abumere(2004) “Abuja: The Dream and Reality”…498.
- For more on this, see: The 1991 population census of Nigeria.
- This estimates as quoted in S.I.Abumere (2004) is based on the 2003 figures,which means that the figures might have increased owing to the current level of development in the FCC.
33.See the following for more detailed information: Federal Republic of Nigeria: The Master Plan for Abuja, The New Federal Capital of Nigeria(Abuja: FCDA)
34.For more on this, see: A.L.Mabogunje (2001) “Abuja: The Promise, the Performance and the Prospects” in M.S.U. Kalgo and Olatubosun Ayileka (2001) The Review of Abuja Master Plan (Ibadan: Fountain Publications Ltd).
- Ola Balogun (2001) The Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria: A Geography of its development (Ibadan: University Press) p161.
- Federal Republic of Nigeria: Abuja(Abuja: FCDA) pp22-23.
- Federal Republic of Nigeria: Abuja…p23.
- Federal Republic of Nigeria: Abuja, Achievements of the Ministry ofthe Federal Capital Territory,1985-1992(Abuja: FCDA)PP26-27.
41.Omolade Adejuyigbe(1989) “ Creation of States in 1967 and 1976” in Ekeh, P. P., Dele-Cole, P., Olusanya, G. O. (eds.) Nigeria Since Independence: The First 25 Years Vol. V: (Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books). pp. 206-232.
- A, Bako(1989)…p200.
- A, Bako(1989)…p203.
- I, Abumere(2004)…p498
Abumere S.I (2004) “Abuja: The Dream and Reality” In I.B. Bello-Imam and Mike Obadan (eds) Democratic Governance and Development Management in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic 1999-2003 (Ibadan: Centre for Local Government and Rural Development Studies, Ibadan).
Abumere S.I (1984) “The Future Population of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja” in Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, Vol.26. No.3, pp287-313.
Afolabi G.J, (1966) Yoruba Culture: A Geographical Analysis (London:
University of London Press).
Arnold. J, Toynbell (1955) A Study of History Vol.1 (London: Oxford University Press).
Arthur Marwick (1971) The Nature of History (Lodon: Macmillan).
Bala Isa (1984) “The Role of the Gbagi’s in the Hausa State of Abuja, 1807-1979″ (BA, Dissertation, Bayero University Kano BUK).
Bako S.A (1989) “Historical Development of Abuja Town c1850-1979” (MA, Thesis Bayero University Kano, BUK).
Butterfield Hebert (1969) Man on His Past: The Study of the History of the Historical Scholarship (London: Cambridge University Press).
Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch (1991) “The Process of Urbanization in Africa (From the Origins to the Beginning of Independence) in African Studies Review, Vol. 34, No1 (April, 1991).
Collingwood, R.G (1968) The Idea of History (London: Oxford University Press).
Carr E.H (1964) What is History? (London: Penguin Books).
Diarra S,(1981) “Historical Geography: Physical Aspects” in J.Kizerbo(ed) General History of Africa Vol.1(Paris: UNESCO).
Donald Worster (1996) “The two Cultures Revisited: Environmental Sciences” in Journal of Environment and History, Vol.2, 1996, the White Horse Press, U.K. pp3-14.
Ellsworth Huntington (1937) “Geography and History” in The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science Vol.3, No4 (Nov., 1937) pp565572.
Federal Republic of Nigeria: The 1991 population census of Nigeria.
Federal Republic of Nigeria: Abuja (Abuja: FCDA).
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