Multinational Construction Companies and Infrastructural Development in Abuja 1976-2005
BOUMO EZONBI & EMMANUEL JONAH
This chapter will examine multinational construction companies in Abuja since 1976. The essence is to ascertain their role in the structural development of Abuja. To this end, the body of this work is divided into five: introduction; theoretical framework; definition of the study area; multinational constructions companies in Abuja; contribution to the growth and development of Abuja and then the conclusion.
It is a known fact that the quest for colonies in the pre and post-colonial eras in Africa gave rise to what is referred to as multinational corporations. In Nigeria, such corporations which started operating in a relatively smaller number before independence, soon spread to cover almost all aspects of the economy mainly due to the post-independence policy of industrialization pursued by the Nigerian government. Such was the case that by 1972, Nigeria had attracted more multinational investment than any other country in Africa with an estimated stock of foreign investment totaling $2.1 billion or 22% of all foreign investment in Africa for that year.1 The case doubled in 1976 when the need to move the Federal Capital Territory from Lagos to Abuja became a reality. The period witnessed the mass movement of the activities of multinational construction companies in to the area.2 The activity of these companies and their contributions to the structural development of Abuja as the case is today is the focus of this chapter.
A multinational corporation is an enterprise that engages in foreign direct investment and owns or control value-added activities in more than one country. A firm is not really multinational if it just engages in overseas trade or serves as a contractor to foreign firms.3 The degree of multinationality of a specific firm can be assessed in a number of ways. For instance, firm are considered to be multinational if (1) they have many foreign affiliates or subsidiaries in foreign countries;
(2) they operate in a wide variety of countries around the globe; (3) the proportion of assets, revenues, or profit accounted for by overseas operations relative to total assets, revenues, or profits is high; (4) their employees, stakeholders, owners and managers are from many different countries; and (5) their overseas operations are much more ambitious than just sales office, including a full range of manufacturing and research and development activities.4
Construction fall into two closely related categories: (A) building (B) civil engineering works. Building construction covers residential, office and commercial structures, while the rest, roads, bridges, ports, airports, dams, canals and factories fall into the latter category.5 On account of highly skilled technical manpower, sophisticated level of technology with machine equipments and large capital requirements. These sectors generate high technology rent. Due to high level technology which has also been increasingly monopolized by the giant MNC’s that can afford large investment for research and d evelopment (R & D) and such d ominated by multinationals in Nigeria.
The history of imperialist intervention in the construction industry dates back to the colonial era when major civil engineering work was monopolized by the British. Thus, William Shelford of Messrs Shelford, a British consulting engineering firm was awarded the contract for surveying the routes of Nigeria’s first railw ay d uring 1894/ 1895. Subsequently the British companies, Costain and Tylon Woodrow, and later the Italian Construction firm of Cappa and D’ Alberto together with Isreal’s Solel Boneh, dominated the construction sector under colonialism.6
Multinationalism became the most dramatic economic development since World War II; it is also the least understood. Myths abound regarding the multinational corporation. It is commonly believed to be something radically new and indeed, unprecedented. But it is also a revival of an old trend as there was a multinational galore in the 19th century. The fear of multinationals is nothing new either. The most articulate outcry against been “taken over by the Americans” can be found in the English books and magazines articles of 1900.
Both in USA and Europe, major scientific and technical innovation of the 19th century led almost immediately to the emergence of multinational corporations; that is of companies that were making and selling goods in many countries. This was the case with Siemens in the 1850s; the English subsidiary was founded almost immediately after the German parent and subsidiary in Russia. Thus the surge for multinationals in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s represented in large measure, a resumption of the pre-World War I trend rather than a total new development.7 Multinational corporations have been grossly criticized not only as an engine of exploitation but of imperialism.8 This chapter will not dwell on such criticism, but rather focus on their overall contribution to the structural development of Abuja since 1976.
The Study Area
Abuja is located between latitude 8025 and 9025 north of the equator and longitude 6045 and 7045 east of the Greenwich meridian.9 This geographically places it at the centre of Nigeria.
It shares its boundaries with Kaduna State to the north, Plateau State to the east and south east, Kogi state. The area is about 1,100 kilometre by road from Lagos and about 2.5 times the total landmass of Lagos. Placed in the north-eastern quadrants of Nigeria and in a position easily identify by Aso Hill. The landscape of the area consists of tilted alluvial plains dissected by River Gurara and Usuma and a range of hills, inselberges and extension of the Jos Plateau popularly known as Jema’s Platform running through to the middle10.
The vegetation of the territory is predominantly Guinea Savannah. The soil is reddish and its temperature fluctuates between 300 and 370 centigrade. Like other parts of Nigeria, Abuja is basically affected by the dry and rainy season. The dry season is between December and March, and the rainy season, in April to November. The city has an average rainfall of 1,632mm annually.11
The area is inhabited by people from across Nigeria. The manifestation of various activities and those participating in them point to the fact that it is a socio-cultural melting point devoid of one distinct culture or tradition. For the fact that the area was carved out from three states (Niger provided 6,328.4 sq. km; Plateau 1.313.4 sq. km and then Kwara 358.2 sq. km) it is obvious that apart from English, the official language, and Hausa, Ibo and Yoruba – the main Nigerian languages, several other distinct dialects are spoken in various communities in the territory.12
Construction Companies in Abuja since 1976
(a) Julius Berger Nigeria Plc.
Julius Berger was and is still regarded by most Nigerians as the giant in the construction industry. Its popularity stems from not only its ubiquity in the country, but more importantly, as a result of the myriads of the highly qualitative and complex engineering jobs it has executed to the satisfaction and acclaim of both the government and the people of Nigeria.13
The company was first registered as Julius Berger Nigeria Limited with a strong wish to participate in the rebuilding efforts in Nigeria. The company was first owned 60% by the parent company, Bilfinger + Berger Bauaktien Gesellschalft in Germany, and 40% being held by Lagos State and Benue Plateau State, the main areas where the company was active. This ownership was to change before the end of the decade, when the company elected to float shares on the stock market and the parent company trimmed backs its holdings to 40%. The remaining 20% of the sought after when to individuals shareholders.
With the new companies and Allied Matters Degree of 1990, the name of the company was changed to Julius Berger Nigeria PLC, the name it still maintains up to date.14 The company flocked into Nigeria in 1965 to assist in building the nation. The first contract handled by J.B.N was the Eko Bridge, the longest pre-stressed concrete bridge in Africa at the time. Julius Berger itself evolved from been a renowned bridge builder to become an all round construction company handling construction projects that includes turnkey building facilities for administrative and corporate needs alike, ranging from Delta Steel plant in Warri to the ministerial prototype building in the new capital, Abuja. From the onset, the company’s philosophy focused on commitment to the client and was informed by the knowledge that construction, and most definitely the construction of major infrastructural facilities, is a long term process from planning to completion.15
In the 1980s, Julius Berger became involved to provide infrastructure for Wuse I District. What emerged w as unprecedented degree of cooperation between client and contractor. After all, Julius Berger immediately recognized the opportunities, importance and responsibility involved in taking part in such a huge undertaking. It set about gathering as much information as possible on the overall planning in other to bring its know how to bear in detailed planning.
In 1983, the company was commissioned to construct roads, bridges and retaining walls in the new capital’s central area, and the scope of this contract was substantially expanded in 1988. A year later, Julius Berger was placed in charge of forging the infrastructure in the Maitama Residential District. Since 1990, alongside performing substantial infrastructural projects, the company has also been involved in the turnkey construction of several major building projects that have helped shape the face of Abuja.16 With their personal dedication, technical ability and integrity, Julius Berger soon established a close rapport with the Federal Authority responsible for the implementation of Abuja master plan and the ongoing dialogue has been the fruitful outcome of this cooperation.
Julius Berger has been the ideal partner when F.C.D.A. staffs for example, sought in-depth know how and competent interdisplinary and consultive back up as part of the decision making process. This continuous interaction enables Julius Berger engineers and architects to become intimately acquainted with the architectural principles specific to Abuja. An outstanding example for the success of this close knit cooperation was the design philosophy for the Federal Ministry complex developed jointly by Julius Berger staffers and their colleagues in the F.C.D.A.17
When many other companies fled the city, Julius Berger consistently stood its ground. For example, in 1984, when all others left, they stayed on with a lean team of 26 staff and 870 workers, and had set up a massive permanent yard, including workshop, reconditioning facilities; a tyre retarding plants, and a quarry. In Abuja alone, the company has fuel tanks containing five million litres of diesel fuel and barrels holding 3,000 tones of bitumen and a cask for a further 2,000 in case of shortage.
In terms of structural developments, Julius Berger provided the infrastructures for three main districts, namely Maitama, Wuse I and Wuse II districts. These infrastructures includes beneath the road pavement, telecom ducts, storm drainage, fresh and waste piping, bridges, water and sewage pipelines and cable ducts in Central Area.
In line with the above, Julius Berger also became involved in building residential quarters and complex administrative facilities. Moreover, the “road and bridge masters” became expert builder of ports railways, building of water treatment facilities and dams as well as industrial plant and run dredging operation. The company did not only has its own quarries providing the stone necessary for its building works, but also operate a granite and natural stone production unit which manufactures wall cladding and floor tiling from stone mines.18
A striking and commendable aspect of the operation of the company in Abuja has been the development and utilization of local building materials such as granite floor, wall tiles and red bricks. Apart of backward integration operations, the overall objective is also in consonance with the philosophy behind the economic programme, the corner stone of which is self reliance through local sourcing of raw materials.19 The activities of this company in Abuja are seen in Table 1:
|Client||Description of Project|
|Federal Capital Development
|Expansion of international Airpo Extension of the terminal to a gros approximately 30,00m2 designed to di million passengers par year. Upgra expansion of runways, the infrastructu airport specific facilities, such as conveyor and check in facilities, r occupation|
|Federal Republic of Nigeria||National stadium – Velodrome, Abuj design and Construction of a velod multi functional Arena on the site of th stadium complex. The velodrume has of 3000 spectators for cycling competit
the possible increase of audience up to multi-purpose use. An aesthetica technically covers the complex. A
support buildings to contain sport, o press facilities
|Federal Republic of Nigeria||National Stadium, Abuja design and construction of the national stadium spectators, according to international The structure of the stadium is a comb in-situ and precast concrete elements.|
Table 1: Major Construction Works carried out by Julius Berger in Abuja.
|Client||Description of Project|
|Central Bank of Nigeria||Head office building complex Abuja. T shows different components consistin main tower, an eleven storey reinforced frame building with pen house, compr wings with auditorium and entran attached, a service block, a sing building housing the rectangular shape building. The turnkey contract also side drains, road and parking, fencing a sewage treatment plant and an und
water reservoir. Volume of mai 377.7973, service block: 6,047m3. The was constructed to the highest stan finishing works, ready for occupation.
|Police Headquarters, Abuja. Construct eight storey block on a turnkey basis house. Part of the building has a base underground parking. Total gross 27,500m2. The contract included ga power house with substations and co road and parking, side drains besi necessary infrastructure and landscapin|
|National Women and Children’s Hospi
Hospital complex with a total gross flo 33.000m2 constructed on a turnkey ba single two storey buildings contai administration, multi clinics, emergencies, store, ward cluster diagnostic and therapy, maternity and department. The contract included th facilities, streets and elevated walkways house and the drainage network and lan
|Additional roads with emphasis dualisation of a 14km expressway interchanges, which is expanded to a 14km extension of one carriagew expressway(14m wide) over a length including 3 interchanges. Extension of carriageways of a 5.5km long expressw works and bridge construction works.|
|Further development of Jabi Distric
Development of Jabi District
(b) Arab Contractor s Nig. Ltd.
Arab Contractors is one of the leading construction companies in the Middle East and Africa, and Egypt to be precise, with an international renowned expertise and wide experience in construction as well as commitment to quality, safety and service which entails the company’s wide spectrum of projects in the middle east, Africa, Asia and Europe.20
Arab Contractor had been in the construction business since in Egypt and has over the years grown and developed rapidly into one of the largest indigenous civil engineering and construction organization operating in 28 countries in Africa,
Asia and Eastern Europe with an annual turnover of over $1.55 The company is widely diversified and covers a wide
spectrum of construction industry and its ancillary services including public buildings, bridges, roads, tunnels, dams, hospital, sport building, restoration of monuments, irrigation, producing ready-mix concrete, electromechanical works, consultancy, erection of steel structures.
Arab Contractors Nig. Ltd came into Nigeria in 1992 with its headquarter in Lagos. Since then, the company has engaged in various projects in Lagos and Calabar. These includes, Lagos State House, Unicem Cement Plant, Calabar. The company moved to Abuja in 1995 and since then, has been involved in construction works such as office building complex, residential building, religious structures, multi-storey commercial structure, District infrastructural development, roads and other heavy engineering works.22 The company has a strong financial base and also a quarry site here in Nigeria. These plus its cement plant and mechanical yard for servicing its fleet of equipment speaks volume of its efficiency and efficacy.
The company’s capability in construction and project management is supported by staff with many years of experience in the field of geotechnics, information technology, and construction planning organization and logistic. The company’s staff strength comprises expatriate and Nigerians. Most of these staff are spread in various sites.23 With the foregoing, the company has maintained and increased its reputation as a quality driven organization both nationally and internationally. Through its trained staffs, Arab Contractors were able to carry out major construction activities in Abuja, some of which are enunciated in Table 2 below:
|Names and Address of Employer|
|NIDC Head Office
Development at Asokoro and
|1995||Oriental Energy Resources Limited.
Plot 306, Younis Bashorun Street,
Victoria Island Lagos.
|Flame Tree Place
(Now Abuja Stock Exchange Complex) Abuja.
|1997||Oriental energy Resources Limited. Plot 306, Younis Bashorun Street,
Victoria Island Lagos.
|1998||Pivot Engineering Co. Ltd. Plot 308, ACME
Road, Ogba. Ikeja
Major Construction activities carried out by Arab Contractor in Abuja
|Names and Address of Employer|
Zone D, Apo
|1999||Ministry of Federal
Village) at Apo,
|1999||Ministry of Federal
Source: Public Relation Unit, 2006.
(c) BNL Engineering and Construction Limited
Bouygues Nigerian Engineering and Construction Limited is one of the leading building and civil engineering construction companies in Nigeria. The company was incorporated in 1975 and duly registered with the Federal Ministry of Works and Housing in the highest category.24 The company was founded in 1952 by Francis Bouygues in Paris. Initially focused on Paris, its activities rapidly spread to other parts of France. In 1972, Bouygues successfully broke into civil market with the construction of Parade Princes Stadium, and into off shore sector with the foundation of Bouygues offshore in 1974.25
Bouygues construction revolves around four subsidiaries: Bouygues Bitumen (building), Bouygues Travaus (civil works), Bouygues offshore (oil and gas contracting) and ETDE (electrical contracting). Bouygues construction is established in seventy countries with a record of total turnover of 15.6 billion Euros in 200526 and since then, has positioned itself as a global contractor, offering its clients comprehensive construction works such as technical engineering, design and building contracts, turnkey projects, operation and/ or concession maintenance.
Although the company came into Nigeria in the midst of 1970s, its activities were only felt in Abuja in 1999. As a late comer, the company did all it could to gain and execute contracts. This is shown in Table 3.
|Client||General Description Table 3:
Construction Works carried out by BNL
|Court of Appeal, Federal Government of Nigeria||Headquarter and Abuja
Division of court of Appeal, two main building with atriums and courtyards; linked by passageways, plus ancillary building.
|High Court of
|Rectangular building, 5 storey high with underground car park, cells, six court rooms, offices, meeting rooms and archives||Floor
|Swiss Federal Office for Building and
|Construction of the new
Visa Pavilion and Transformation of one villa to a modern
Embassy. Turnkey project with the design done by the contractor
|Federal Government of Nigeria||Design and building project: banquet hall, Press Centre and Library at the Presidential Villa, Asokoro, Abuja.||Floor
|Federal Government of Nigeria||National Stadium Package B: Design, build and finance project; Olympic standard swimming pool, indoor sports hall of 3,000 seat; gymnasium of 2,000 seats, hockey stadium of 3,000 seats, public car park, Game village infrastructure and public building||23,00 buildi 45,00 pavin 160,0 roads|
|Construction of banking head office and offices||Floor
Printing and Minting
|Construction of National printing factory complex in Nigeria.||Floor 27,50|
|Fototek||Construction on designbuild basis of an office building (ground floor plus storey) as well as two apartments||Floor 2,50|
|Nigeria National Petroleum cooperation
|A podium of five to seven levels housing parking zones and technical areas. Four office towers of 10 level each. Shopping
centre and restaurant zone
urceon the ground floor; : Commercial Unit technical areas and conference centre.
|Construction of U- shaped building with the axis of symmetry marked by the seat of the Supreme Court||60,0|
|Nicon Hilton Hotel Abuja 19||Turnkey construction of a
48five star hotel complex, composed of a 14 storey
Y-shaped building with 1020 rooms and presidential suites on ten storey, a shopping centre on two levels, technical installations and a discotheque in a basement, annexes with
three restaurants, a conference room, swimming pools, tennis courts, car park.
COSTAIN (WEST AFRICA) PLC
Costain group is based in U.K. The company w as incorporated as a private limited liability company on 16 July, and became a public company on 13 March 1974. The0 company operates as building and civil engineering contractors throughout the Fed eral Republic of Nigeria and also manufactures furniture and joinery.27
Costain started construction work in Nigeria in the early 1970s and moved its base to Abuja in 1989 where with the passage of time, it became one of the major construction companies in the area. The company’s concentration in carpentry and joinery does not mean that it is unacquainted with building industrial plant. After all, the company not only has state and federal government clients, but also major private sector clients. The company’s engineering spectrum was broadened to include building works and designed and constructed jointly with international consultants and Nigerian architects.28 The company has engaged in w id escale administrative and residential buildings as demonstrated in Table 4.
|Project Title T||able 4:Client|
|NNPC Staff Housing Area 3||Construction Works carried out by Costain PlcNNPC|
|NAL Merchant Bank Head Office||NAL Merchant Bank|
|Shell Trustees Nig Ltd, Housing Estate Maitama||Shell|
|Education Tax Fund Head Office Complex Abuja.||Ministry of Education|
|Shell Trustees Nig Ltd Housing Estate 11||Shell|
Source: Costain Annual Report, 2006.
(e) Cappa and D’Alberto Plc
Cappa and D’ Alberto Plc as a construction company started with two young Italian technicians who came to Africa in third decade of the 20th century. These two technicians formed a partnership which gave birth to this construction company in the early 1930s.
From the beginning, the company focused on the constructions of residential building such as houses, offices, churches, mosques and schools. Their strong background in construction work could be seen in the qualities of their works most of which has survived to date.29 The company flourished well except during the Second World War period when hostilities within the country lead to a temporary folding up of the company. The situation was arrested at the end of the war and the company reopened with it properties returned. Consequently, after the Second World War, Cappa and
D’Alberto became the veritable training ground for personnel. Many successful companies today in Nigeria holds credit to the manpower training offered to it staffs by this company.30 Such trainings come in form of skills acquisitions in the area of carpenters, masons, electricians, plumbers, mechanics, architects, etc.
With the indigenization policies by the federal government in 1972, the company diverted 40% of it shares. Today, the company is 60% Nigerian owned.31 Since then, the company has contributed immensely to the development of Nigeria in general and Abuja in particular. Some of the building and construction jobs in Abuja include residential development for Shell Trustees Ltd Abuja; United Nations Common Premises Abuja; Kan Koki Nigeria Ltd office complex Abuja; Ministry of information office complex (Radio House).32
Apart from the various multinational companies discuss above, there are those whose presence in Abuja was swift but who have participated in one construction activity or the other.
These companies executed turnkey projects and other infrastructures needed to accommodate government officials and office complex.
Nichol (Nig) Ltd for instance, constructed the old federal secretariat in Area 1 Garki; Federal Capital Development Authority (FCDA) Head office Area 11. Dumez (Nig) Ltd a
French company built different projects, ADCP (Accelerated District Construction Project) Garki 1. Strabag (Nig) Ltd, also a French owned company was engaged in the construction of
Onex express way and the Onex – Zuba roundabout to Asokoro. Aprofim (Nig) Ltd, an Israel construction firm built the Nicon Hotel (Trancorp Hilton) and started Federal Ministry prototype office complex. Lodgiani (Nig) Ltd an Italian company constructed the National Mosque Abuja. Trans Engineering (Nig) Ltd were involved in developing Asokoro infrastructures. Jagal (Nig) Ltd constructed Nigeria Television Authority (N.T.A) headquarters Abuja. C and C (Nig), a Lebanese owned companies built State Security Service (SSS) headquarter, Abuja and the construction of prototype Federal Ministry Building. While Fougerolle (Nig) Ltd, French owned company, constructed Total Headquarters and Finance
Building in central business district.33
Impacts of Multinational Construction Companies in Abuja
Multinational construction companies, irrespective of their intent and purpose, have contributed greatly to the development of Abuja both structurally and otherwise. These impacts which cut across all the facet of the area are discussed below.
One of the impacts of multinational corporations in general and multinational construction companies in particular is the transfer of the capital from the parent company to the host country. This is because the level of capital formation in the less developed countries is generally low due mainly to reasons including the general poverty amongst the people, low per capital income and the high cost of living. The parent company therefore has to transfer capital to less developed host countries to establish it. This invariably means that the total volume of capital available to the host country is increased. In line with this, multinational businesses also served as a link between the less developed host countries in asking of aids from home countries as well as helping to generate domestic capital through savings, while at the same time ensuring that such capital are put into better use.34
Secondly, the presence of multinational companies brought about the massive urbanization of Abuja. With the creation of the territory in 1976 and the eventual movement of people especially construction workers, the area began to gradually urbanize with some of the villages gradually transformed to urban centres. Areas like Garki and Wuse villages became centers of commerce, construction and administration.35 Notably of all, in this transformation process are companies like Julius Berger, Arab Contractors, Bouygues who built their staff quarters in Bwari, Karu, Nyanya, Zuba, Gwagalada and Kubwa among others. These villages later became part of the New Federal Capital City (FCC). Gwagwalada village in particular became transformed into an urban area with the establishment of the first headquarters of the Federal Capital Territory in the area.36
Today, the rate of urbanization is increasing steadily, as several villages became urbanized. This was the case since the 1980s when the multinational construction companies took over the provision of infrastructures in these hitherto villagised areas. By implication, these areas became centers of innovations for spiritual diffusion of modernization: they serve as foci where major infrastructure investments are concentrated (examples of these are electricity, w ater, ed ucation, health, communication and transportation that increase connectivity of urban system and thereby enhance their role in the economy as centers of industrial and productive linkages. And lastly, they, through industries, spatially diffuse the technological know-how of the manufacturing process as well as introduce organizational changes in to the local and national economy.37
Multinational construction companies, in carrying out their activities within Abuja during the period under review, also created employment opportunities to the people of the area. Most of their staff who work in different departments of the companies are nationals of Nigerian who either reside in Abuja or in other states that make up the federation. These reflected in almost all the staffing methods of the companies. Nationals of Nigeria are not only employed to provide unskilled labour in the construction sites but to fill in administrative and managerial positions as well as professionals. This by implication provides jobs opportunities and reduced the rate of unemployment in Abuja in particular and Nigeria in general.38
Closely allied to the above is the fact that these companies, despites the criticism against their activities, serves as source of revenue generation to the government of Nigeria. There revenues comes in form of monies paid for transactions executed within the country and sometimes, projects were executed as contribution to the overall development of the area.39
This chapter has examined the role multinational construction companies played in the structural development of Abuja between 1976 when the federal capital was officially moved to Abuja to 2005. The chapter adopted piecemeal approach in analyzing the body of the essay. The work discovered that contrary to the w id e speculation about the role of multinationals in third world countries, they have in some measure contributed to the growth and development of Abuja. This chapter concludes that Nigeria recognizes what big role foreign corporations can play as engines for development through providing investment capital in the private and public sector and as most of the technologies are in their private ownership, at the same time it is known that some of their activities are harmful to the interest of host countries, particularly developing countries.
- Biersteker, J Thomas, Distortion or Development? Contending Perspective on the Multinational Cooperation (London: MIT Press Cambridge; 1978), p.68.
- Ezonbi, Boumo “A History of Multinational Construction Companies in Abuja Metropolis 1976-2005”A Dissertation. Department of History, Benue State University Makurdi. August 2008, p.8.
- Joan, E. Spero, The Politics of International Economic Relations ( Canada: Thomson and Wadsworth Publishers, 2003), p.117.
- Joan, E. Spero, The Politics of International Economic Relations… p.117.
- Alkasum, Abba et al, The Nigerian Economic Crisis: Causes and Solution( Zaria: Gaskiya Corporation Ltd, 1985), p.71.
- Onimode, Bade et al, Multinational cooperation in Nigeria (Ibadan: Les Shyraden Nigeria Limited), p.1.
- Peter, F Drucker, Management Tasks, Responsibilities, Practice( USA; Harper Collin Publisher; 1993), 730.
- Criticism abound on the activities of multinational in the third world countries. For more on this, see Biersteker, J Thomas, Distortion or Development? Contending Perspective on the Multinational Cooperation
(London: MIT Press Cambridge; 1978); Joan, E. Spero, The Politics of
International Economic Relations (Canada: Thomson and Wadsworth
Publishers, 2003); Peter, F Drucker, Management Tasks, Responsibilities, Practice ( USA; Harper Collin Publisher; 1993) and Onimode, Bade etal, Multinational cooperation in Nigeria (Ibadan: Les Shyraden Nigeria Limited)
- Daily Times Newspaper of Saturday 3rd November, 1979.
- Abuja: Achievements of Ministry of Federal Capital Territory 1985-1992 ( Lagos: Jeroliard Associate Ltd, 1992), p.9.
- Abuja: Achievements of Ministry of Federal Capital Territory 19851992… p.9.
- Abuja: Achievements of Ministry of Federal Capital Territory 19851992… p.11.
- Agoucha, O.J.J, Abuja : Birth of the Colossus( Nigeria: String- Horden Publisher Nigeria Ltd), p.87.
- Julius Berger Nigeria 1970- 1995: A Special Publication of Julius BergerNigeria Plc. 25 Years History in Nigeria. 1995, p.51.
- Interview with Engineer Sule Danladi. 55 years, Assistant Director,Federal Ministry of Works. 14th march 2007.
- Abuja: Achievements of Ministry of Federal Capital Territory 19851992… pp.48-50.
- Ezonbi Boumo “A History of Multinational Construction Companies in Abuja Metropolis 1976-2005”… p.46.
- Ezonbi Boumo “A History of Multinational Construction Companies in Abuja Metropolis 1976-2005”… p.47.
- Agoucha, O.J.J, Abuja : Birth of the Colossus… p.88.
- Interview with Eke Ugwe, 24 Years. Department of Public Relations,Arab Contractors Abuja office. 20th January, 2007.
- Arab Contractors Construction. Annual Report Publication, 2004,
- Interview with Engineer Shola Joseph. 45years. Site Engineer KarshiProject. 17th February, 2007.
- Interview with Mr Gambo Yari. 46 years. Personnel Manager, Arab
Contractors Abuja Office. 1st March, 2007
- BNL Engineering and Construction Limited. Profile compiled by Henry Orogha . May, 2000, p.4.
- Agoucha, O.J.J, Abuja : Birth of the Colosus… p.75.
- Agoucha, O.J.J, Abuja : Birth of the Colosus… p.76.
- Constain (West Africa) Plc: Annual Report and Financial Statement: A Special Publication of Costain ( West Africa) Plc., 2005, p.20.
- Interview with Akintan Obafemi. 34 years, Project QuantitySurveyor. 10th March, 2007
- Interview with James Oko Michael. 52 years. Retired foreman ofCappa and D’Alberto. 10th October, 2006.
- Ezonbi Boumo “A History of Multinational Construction Companies in Abuja Metropolis… p.53.
- Federation of Construction industry. Fifty years of construction in Nigeria,
- Ezonbi Boumo “A History of Multinational Construction Companies in Abuja Metropolis… p.53.
- Ezonbi Boumo “A History of Multinational Construction Companies in Abuja Metropolis… p.54.
- Ezonbi Boumo “A History of Multinational Construction Companies in Abuja Metropolis… p.77.
- Dawam, P.D, “ Urbanization and Urban Settlement” In Dawam,P.D (ed), Geography of Abuja Federal Capital Territory, (Minna:
Famous Asalu Publishers, 2000) P.157
- Ezonbi Boumo “A History of Multinational Construction Companies in Abuja Metropolis… p.86.
- Dawam, P.D, “ Urbanization and Urban Settlement”… p.156.
- Ezonbi Boumo “A History of Multinational Construction Companies in Abuja Metropolis… p.70.
- Ezonbi Boumo “A History of Multinational Construction Companies in Abuja Metropolis… p.86.