Transformation in the Agricultural
Sector of Abuja Economy, 1976-2002
JULIUS O. UNUMEN
The Federal Capital Territory Administration formally took over the administration of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja in 1980 from the different state governments from which the territory was carved out in 1976. In the same vein, the FCDA commenced physical development in the territory in 1980. Movements into the Federal Capital City (FCC) from Lagos commenced in 1982 ahead of 1986. On December 12, 1991 the seat of government of the country was formally moved from Lagos to Abuja. All these d evelopments w ere accompanied by remarkable economic changes in the territory. Economic changes in the FCT, Abuja between 1976 and 2002 took place in agriculture, trade and industry. The focus of this chapter is the transformation that took place in agriculture in Abuja between 1976 and 2002. Changes in agriculture between 1976 and 2002 will be examined under three broad headings namely: crop, livestock, fisheries and production.
Crop production, up to 1976 was carried out by farmers who used simple implements such as hoes, cutlasses, knives and sticks. Areas cultivated by individual farmers were generally small.1 Although the use of fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides were not completely unknown, the farmers could not obtain the needed quantities. A survey carried out in 1979 revealed that farmers in the FCT “complained” that fertilizers were “difficult to get”. The report also revealed that many farmers who needed fertilizers, for example, “only managed to acquire a bag between three farmers”.2 Thus change was negligible. There were no government’s extension services. The farmers, therefore, depended on the traditional land fallow system of farming.3 This situation was to change after 1979. From 1980, agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, insecticides, sprayers etc. were distributed to farmers by government agencies. In addition, improved seeds, seedlings and parent stock were distributed to farmers. In the same vein, extension services were provided for farmers in the territory. To boost extension services, demonstration farms were established in different parts of the territory where farmers were acquainted with new ideas and techniques in crop production. The use of tractors took care of mechanised clearing and land preparation.
Between 1980 and 1990, for example, the FCT Administration under the auspices of the Ministry of Federal Capital Territory (MFCT) and the Federal Capital Development Authority (FCDA) contributed to the role of farmers in crop production in the FCT by distributing a total of 31,383 tonnes of assorted fertilizers to farmers. In addition, 24,548 litres of assorted agro-chemicals were distributed to farmers within the same period. 94,450 kilogrammes of improved seeds, 2.8 millions seedlings and 156 tonnes of grains were also procured and d istributed to farmers in the FCT by the FCT Administration.4 Tables 1 and 2 below show details of procurements and distributions of agricultural inputs including assorted fertilizers, agro-chemicals, seed dressings and equipments to farmers in the FCT, Abuja between 1985 and 1991 by government agencies.
Procurement and Distribution of Fertilizers in the FCT from 1985 to 1991 in metric tonnes
Source : MFCT, “Abuja Achievement of MFCT, 1985-1992”, 1992 P.38.
Distribution of agro-chemical, seeds dressings and equipment to farmers in the FCT, from 1985-1990 in metric tonnes
Source : MFCT, “Abuja: Achievement of MFCT, 1985-1992”, 1992, p. 38.
Distribution of improved seeds to farmers in the FCT, 1985-1990
Source: MFCT, “Abuja Achievement of MFCT 1985-1992”, 1992, p.39.
In the 1996/ 1997 farming season, MFCT procured and distributed 15,000 metric tonnes of fertilizers to farmers in the FCT. In addition, the Federal Government supplemented the fertilizers distributed to farmers that year with 2,100 metric tonnes of assorted fertilizers.5 Similarly between 1996 and 2000, the fertilizers procurement and distribution unit of the department of Agriculture of MFCT procured and distributed over 57,006 metric tonnes of fertilizers to farmers in the territory.
There were other inputs besides fertilizers that were also distributed to farmers in the FCT. In the 1997 farming season, for example, the department of agriculture of MFCT spent N1,
396,000 on procurement of 500 litres of assorted liquid chemicals and 1,060 kg of improved seeds, which were distributed to farmers in the FCT.6 To ensure the correct application of the agricultural chemicals, agro-chemicals spray teams were trained who in turn assisted farmers in the territory in the application of chemicals as part of extension services.7 In the same vein, in 1997 N4.0 million was disbursed to the six area councils in the FCT for the purchase and distribution of various farm inputs to farmers in their areas.8 In addition, demonstration centres were established in different parts of the territory. A total of 32,905 kilogrammes of maize and 7,924 kilogrammes of sorghum were produced in the demonstration farms and distributed to farmers between 1985 and 1989.9 Similarly, two agricultural extension centres were built in different parts of the territory from where extension services were made available to farmers. Between 1985 and 1990, a total of 116, 860 kilograms of improved seeds were distributed to farmers in the FCT. Table 3 above shows details of the quantities of improved seeds distributed within the period.
In addition, the FCT Administration bought tractors and other modern agricultural implements at a cost of 13.5 million naira. The equipments were handed over to Bwari and Kwali Area Councils Administration to boost agriculture in their area. In 1997, for example, the MFCT used tractors to prepare about 5,000 hectare of land at subsidized rates for farmers from which a total of N984, 800 was realized as profit.10 In the same vein, in 1997 N4.0 million was disbursed to the six area councils in the FCT for the purchase and distribution of various farm inputs to farmers. Between 1990 and 2002, seed multiplication farms were established in Tunga Maje, Gada Biyu, Tedda and Ashara. The seeds produced in the centres were distributed to farmers to improve their yields and increase output.11 Table 4 below gives details of the seed multiplication centres and quantity of seeds distributed to farmers.
Seed Multiplication and demonstration farms established in the FCT in 1997
Source: MFCT, “1997 Annual Progress Report’, Abuja March, 1997, p.42.
Between 1985 and 1988, over 5 percent of its resources were allocated to the development of agriculture in the territory.12
Other activities aimed at encouraging agriculture beside the distribution of fertilizers and other input to farmers were granting and guaranteeing agricultural loans to farmers to purchase implements and other inputs, encouraging the farmers to form co-operative societies, the basis for which loans and other incentives were given. Others were the establishment of seed multiplication farms from where high yield seeds and seedlings were distributed to farmers, establishment of demonstration farms where farmers were taught modern agriculture, etc. In addition, “agricultural shows” were organised at the end of each farming season. Farmers that were adjudged to have the “best harvests” from their farms were given awards by the FCT Administration. Apart from acting as incentives to the farmers such occasions were used to introduce some of the new innovations in modern agricultural practices. Such occasions also were used to encourage interaction and exchange of ideas among the farmers.13 There were many possible reasons why the Federal Government through the FCT Administration made deliberate policies to transform agriculture in the FCT. First, it has been explained that one of the reasons for the change in the initial policy of evacuating and resettling all the indigenous people outside the 8,000 square kilometres FCT was the discovery that the area was a good arable land for the production of food crop by agricultural communities in the territory. It was considered a wise economic decision to allow the indigenous people to stay where they were to continue with their traditional occupation of farming as a support to the people of the FCT instead of them depending solely on the neighbouring states for food supplies. It could be argued that it was to enhance the production of food to meet the needs of the people that government mad e d eliberate efforts to transform agriculture in the territory. Closely related to the need to meet basic food need of the people of FCT was the recommendation of the ecological report that it was not advisable to evacuate the human population whose farming activities had helped to combat the tsetse fly by destroying much of the habitat. The argument was that to evacuate the population would enhance the prevalence of the disease causing fly among the new inhabitants of the capital. The ecological report, therefore, recommended that the indigenous people be allowed to continue with their farming activities in the territory as a way of destroying the habitat favourable to the tsetse fly.14
Again, the Abuja Master Plan pointed out that the production of grains and root crops in the FCT might only be sufficient to support the subsistence farmers and their families unless ad vanced farming techniques, and large scale mechanized farming were introduced.15 It could again be argued that it was to guarantee adequate food supplies to the inhabitants of the capital that the FCT Administration decided to support and stimulate the production of food crops.
Another factor that can be adduced as to why the FCT Administration made deliberate efforts to transform agriculture in the FCT was the need to prevent rural-urban drift. The Abuja
Master Plan had expressed concern over possible rural-urban drift in the territory. The Abuja Master Plan stated that there might be massive drift of rural youth from the immediate geographical neighbourhood of the FCT into the urban centres as a consequence of the many opportunities that would be created by the development of the capital. Abuja Master Plan, therefore, recommended that efforts be made to guard against the occurrence of rural-urban drift in the territory.16 Thus there was the need to develop the rural areas in order to prevent rural-urban d rift. The thinking w as perhaps, that transformation in agricultural practices and productions would enhance the standard of living in the rural areas and stem the tide of rural-urban drift in the territory.
Apart from the deliberate policy of the FCT Administration to transform agriculture, construction of good roads, which formed part of the physical development of the FCT starting from 1980 contributed to the transformation of agriculture in the territory. It has been explained that one of the problems of agriculture in the FCT, Abuja area up to 1976 was lack of good and motorable roads to evacuate agricultural produce to the market, especially towns outside the territory.17 The commencement of physical development and the construction of motorable roads helped to boost agriculture in many ways. According to Edeoghon, good roads made it possible for many farmers to transport their produce to the major markets where they were sold directly to buyers.18 The construction of motorable regional roads, the network of roads within the FCC as well as feeder roads in the rural areas of the FCT created many “supply and demand points” for agricultural produce. These included selling in “situ” inside the farms in the local markets within the farming communities, in urban markets within the FCT, in daily regional markets in the FCT, markets in neighbouring towns as well as along major roads leading to the Federal Capital Territory (FCT).19 Another way that construction of good roads contributed to the transformation of agriculture in the FCT, Abuja was by enhancing extension services delivery such as dissemination of information on improved methods of agriculture, innovations in agricultural practices, modernization as well as processing of produce.
Population growth was another factor that contributed to the transformation of agriculture in the FCT between 1976 and 2002.20 From 132,000 people in 1976, the population of FCT, Abuja grew to an estimated 6.7 million by 2002. Population growth led to increased foods demands. Increased demand meant that market for farm produce was guaranteed. This acted as a stimulus for the farmers to produce more. In the same vein increase in demand naturally led to improved prices of agricultural produce and by extension increase in the income of farmers. Increase in prices was another incentive for the farmers to produce more in order to earn more money and improve their standard of living.
From 1990, efforts of MFCT and FCDA towards improved agriculture were spplemented by agricultural development agencies such as Abuja Agricultural Development Project (AADP). Agricultural support agencies were mainly involved in developing agriculture in the FCT from 1990 to 2002. One of the agricultural agencies that w ere very active in transforming agriculture in the FCT w as the Abuja Agricultural Development Project (AADP). AADP was on of the Federal Government’s Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) in the country. ADPs were among the institutional support agencies established by the Federal Government of Nigeria in the 1970s to promote the development of agriculture in the country. ADPs, w hich had a tripartite fund ing arrangement involving the Federal Government, the respective state governments and the World Bank started operation in Nigeria in 1975.21 Abuja ADP w as approved for implementation as the 22nd ADP in the country as part of the policy to established ADPs in every state of the federation.22
Abuja ADP commenced operations in 1990 with the aim of stimulating agricultural productivity in the FCT by providing extension services to farmers in order to enhance the standard of living of rural farmers in the territory. It has been pointed out that the Abuja ADP played “a remarkable supplementary role” to the Department of Agriculture of MFCT in the area of “management and evaluation of extension and technical services, including rural infrastructural development” from its inception in 1990.23 Abuja ADP was very active in providing extension services as well as inputs to farmers between 1990 and 2002. With the aim of enhancing agricultural yields and increased output of crops in the territory, AADP produced and distributed to farmers a total of 3,472 tonnes and 13,478 tonnes of fertilizers in the 1990 and 1991 seasons respectively. Between 1990 and 1991, AADP distributed 1,410 litres and 400 kilogrammes of assorted chemicals and 17.6 metric tonnes of improved seeds to farmers in the territory. In the area of extension services, over 4,596 farm visits were undertaken. In the same vein, AADP trained over 26,640 farmers in agricultural technology and innovation within the same period. Between 1990 and 1991, the AADP visited 150,000 farm families and cultivated over 116,301 hectares of land with different crops and the improved seeds were also distributed to farmers.24
Within the period of 1990 and 1996 also, AADP supplied farmers in the FCT over 60,000 tonnes of assorted fertilizers, 6,500 litres of herbicides, 3,200 litres of pesticides and 11,300 sachets of seed dressing chemicals. In the same vein, through the “out growers scheme” AADP multiplied and distributed 20 tonnes of improved seeds of cowpea, soya-beans, rice, maize and sorghum to farmers in the FCT. The officials also undertook a total of 50,000 field visits to about 5,270 farmers between
1990 and 1996.25
In ad d ition, the role of AADP in the promotion of “Fadama” farming in the FCT is worthy of note. Fadama farming is the cultivation of Fadama areas. Fadama is a Hausa word that means seasonally flooded areas in the plains. Fadama is also used for areas along flat floored river valleys. Fadama areas are usually flooded during the rainy season but in the dry season, the water recedes leaving a coating of fertile alluvial soil. It has been explained that Fadama farming is traditional to the dry savannah region of tropical Africa.26
Fadama areas in the FCT are mostly found in the western part of the territory along rivers Gurara and Usuman and their tributaries. Up to 1976, “Fadama” farming was not very popular in the FCT and it was done mainly during the raining season. The farmers depended solely on rainfall and the flood in the wet season in cultivating the fadama areas. Arable crops such as rice and maize were traditionally cultivated by “Fadama” farmers in the FCT. However, irrigated fadama farming was unknown in the territory up to 1976.27 Irrigated fadama farming is the cultivation of fadama areas in the dry season using artificial water supply to the farms.28 Irrigated fadama farming was first started in the FCT by Hausa migrant farmers from the northern part of the country in the 1980s. The farmers depended on the traditional methods of irrigation such as the use of shardouf and calabash to supply water to the farms during the dry season.29 At the initial stage fadama farming was done on a very small scale by a few farmers but when AADP commenced operation in 1990, it took many steps to transform fadama farming in the FCT, Abuja. AADP encouraged irrigation fadama farming in order to boost dry season farming and ensure all-year round food supplies in the territory. In the first place, through extension services, farmers were trained on the importance, usefulness and benefits of irrigation fadama farming. Secondly, AADP distributed farming inputs such as fertilizers to fadama farmers at subsidized rates. Thirdly, “hand machines” for pumping water to the farms were purchased and distributed to farmers to replace the more laborious traditional methods of using shardouf and calabash. These activities of AADP contributed to boost fadama farming in the territory.30
To ensure that farmers benefited from loans and other assistance by government and other agricultural development agencies, farmers w ere organised into Fadama Users Associations. Fadama Users Associations were registered as primary co-operative societies. Through the Fadama Users Associations farmers had access to inputs such as fertilizers as well as water pumps and wash bore to harness surface and shallow ground water. By 1996, there were 173 Fadama Users Associations in the FCT.31 Areas where fadama irrigation farming was developed in the FCT between 1990 and 2002 include areas around Gwagwalada such as Dobi, Gwako, and Gada Biyu. Others were Karshi, Orozo, Jikwoyi and Karu.32 Crops cultivated in fadama areas included maize, rice, okoro, pepper, sugar cane and vegetables. In Gada Biyu, for instance, there was a remarkable improvement in the different crops that were produced by fadama farmers.
In 1986, 27 tonnes of maize, rice, okra and pepper was produced in Gada Biyu. In 1987 the figure rose to 28 tones. By 1990, it had increased to 36 tonnes (see table 5 below).
Crops Production Figures in Gada Biyu from 1986-1990
|Yearly Crop Production in Tonnes|
Source: Joseph Bok Dalee, “The Contribution of Abuja Agricultural
Development Project to Fadama Farming in Gada Biyu”, B.Sc. Long Essay, Department of Geography, University of Abuja, Dec, 2002, P.49.
From 1997 to 2001, there was a marked improvement in production figures of major crops produced in Gada Biyu showing the impact of AADP in fadama area cultivation. Whereas in 1990 the total tonnage of major crops was 36, in
1997 it was 67. It was 65 in 1998 and 70 in 1999. In 2000 it was 74. The production figures increased to 76 in 2001.33 Table 6 below gives graphic details of the remarkable improvement in crops production in Gada Biyu between 1997 and 2001.
Crop Production Figures in Gada Biyu from 1997-2001
|Crops Production in Tonnes|
Source: Dalee, Bok Joseph (2002). “The Contribution”, p. 5.
Increases in production of agricultural produce brought down prices. It was in this regard that Abuja became a preferred place for buying farm produce, especially yams by traders and travellers. Other contributions of Abuja ADP to the transformation of agriculture in the FCT includ ed formulation of policies and programmes geared toward agricultural modernization, mechanization of agriculture through the provision of tractors to farmers for preparing farmlands for planting, provision of loans to farmers for the purchase of agricultural implements and for hiring of labour. Another way Abuja ADP contributed to the transformation of agriculture in the FCT was by encouraging farmers to form primary and secondary co-operative societies. Through the farmer’s co-operative societies, farmers were able to benefit from government loans and agricultural inputs that were distributed to farmers either at a subsidised rate or freely. Whereas there were only 399 members of primary cooperative societies in the FCT in 1992, the figure rose to 2,845 in 1993, 2910 in 1994 and 3,489 in 1995. By 1996 there were 2,545 members of co-operative societies in the FCT. In 1998, the figure was 20,000 members. The figure rose to 115,400 in 1999.34
Other Agricultural Agencies that contributed to the transformation of agriculture in the FCT were the National Agricultural Development Authority (NALDA) and Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (ACGS). NALDA was a Federal Government Agency established in 1992 with the aim of ensuring the availability of contiguous land as well as reducing the burden of land preparation for agriculture. The project was meant to, among other things check the problem of low utilization of the farmland available in the country.35
Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (ACGS) was initiated by Central Bank of Nigeria and the National Directorate of Employment in the 1990’s. The aim was to encourage farmers at the grass root level to increase their productivity. Under the scheme, farmers were guaranteed loans for the purchase of agricultural implements, fertilizers, machines and other inputs that could enhance their production. Encouragement by Government and agricultural agencies led to a significant improvement in crop production. There were increases in the sizes of cultivated farmlands. The emergence of large farms or commercial farms in the FCT marked a significant change in agriculture. The commercial farmers cultivated large farm lands using mostly hired labour. Production in the commercial farms was deliberately and primarily geared tow ard s meeting market d emand . Mechanization was also practised in the large farms and modern inputs such as fertilizers and insecticides were used to boost production. Crops produced were mostly fruits and vegetables meant for sale in urban markets in and outside the territory.36 In 1992 there were ten large farms in Gwagwalada. The number increased to sixteen in 1994.37 Other areas where there were large farms were Kuje, Municipal and Bwari. Large farms in Abuja produced variety of arable crops like maize, ground nut, rice, cassava, sorghum, cowpea, pigeon pea, and variety of beans. In addition, some large farms in Abuja produced variety of fruits such as mango, avocado pea, guava and cashew.
Efforts in developing agriculture in the FCT, Abuja paid of in improved yields and increase in output in addition to larger farms. Between two to five different farms per farming season were cultivated. The use of fertilizers and other farm inputs as well as the shortage of land for bush fallowing led to the adoption of intensive method of farming. By this method, one farm land was cultivated continuously for a number of years instead of the traditional method of enhancing soil fertility through fallow ing.38 Again, from simple subsistence agriculture, agricultural production became deliberately aimed at meeting market demand. Varieties of arable crops that were hitherto not produced at all or produced only in very small quantities to meet family needs were produced in large quantities for sale in the market. As a consequence of the changes introduced in agriculture in the FCT, Abuja, varieties of crops such as yam, sweet potatoes, cassava, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, cowpea, soybeans, benniseed, melon, groundnut were produced in greater and unprecedented quantities. In addition the period under consideration witnessed tree farming which was hitherto unknown in the area.39 As indicated in tables 5 and 6 above, in the 1993 farming season, 194,821 tonnes of yam, 2,791 tonnes of cassava, 2,219 tonnes of rice and 5,386 tonnes of maize were produced in the FCT. In addition, 742 tonnes of millet, 19,406 tonnes of sorghum, 327 tonnes of cowpea, 434 tonnes of soybeans, 2,217 tonnes of groundnut and 299 tonnes of benniseed were produced in the same year. By 1994 the production figures increased to 253,032 tonnes of yam, 6,016 tonnes of cassava, 7,832 tonnes of rice, 22,101 tonnes of maize, 1,068 tonnes of millet, 32,995 tonnes of sorghum, 13,179 tonnes of cowpea and 2,036 tonnes of soybeans. Similarly production of melon, groundnut and sugar cane increased to 105 tonnes, 2,512 tonnes, 322 tones and 2,727 tonnes respectively in 1994.40 Tables 7 and 8 give graphic details of the variety of crops produced and the improvement in production figures from 1993 to 1994.
FCT Area Cultivated and Production Figures for 1993
|Crop||Production (Tons)||Area (Ha)||Yield|
Source: M. L. Garba, “Agricultural Development in the Federal Capital Territory”, Dawah, P. D. (ed.). Geography of the Federal Capital Territory, 2001, p.119.
FCT Area Cultivated and Production Figures for 1994
|Crop||Production (Tons)||Area Ha||Yield|
Note: production exclude large scale farmers’ production.
Source: M. L. Garba, “Agricultural Development in the Federal Capital Territory”, P. D. Dawah, (ed.). Geography of the Federal Capital Territory, 2001, p.120.
In addition to meeting “local” demands, many of these crops were exported to places like Lagos, Benin, Kaduna etc. where there were demands for them. In concluding this section, it could be said that the period between 1980 and 2002 witnessed the transformation of crop farming in the FCT, Abuja.
There was also a remarkable change between 1976 and 2002 in livestock production. Up to 1979, goats, sheep, fowls were reared in small numbers by ind ivid uals around their settlements. The animals w ere left to feed around the settlements. There was no special form of livestock production like ranching or dairying. There was also no form of intensive or modern poultry production. Up to 1979, Fulani cattle herdsmen only moved into the FCT in search of pasture and water for their cattle during the dry seasons. They however moved out of the territory during the rainy seasons when tsetse fly was more prevalent in the area and pasture abundant in the drier parts of the north. They did not settle permanently within the territory.41 From 1980, however, the situation of livestock production changed in the FCT. To encourage modern poultry production, the FCT Administration established 6 poultry holdings and documentation centres with 16,000 chickens raised and distributed to farmers in different parts of the FCT, between 1985 and 1990.42
By 1992, 16,000 chicks were raised and sold to target farmers as input. In addition, a pilot cattle and sheep ranch was established at Paiko Kore with an initial stock of 15 cow and 250 sheep. In the same vein between 1990 and 1996, Abuja Agricultural Development Project (AADP) produced and distributed 22,000 day old chicks, 160 weaver rabbits to farmers in the FCT to upgrade local stock.43 Livestock farmers in the FCT were assisted especially to vaccinate and treat their animal of pests and diseases. A veterinary clinic was established at Dafa. Between 1985 and 1990, the FCT Administration also established model veterinary clinics at Gwagwalada, Kuje, Bwari, Gawu, Paiko Kore and Nyanya where a total of 1,142,169 livestock were vaccinated and treated for pest and diseases.44 A veterinary clinic established at Daga also facilitated treatment of animals. Between 1985 and 1990, rabbits breeding centres were established at Karshi and Kuje where rabbits were bred and distributed to farmers in the FCT. It has been explained that rabbit breeding was to enhance the income of farmers as well as to increase the animal protein supply in the territory.45
To encourage Fulani cattle herdsmen in the territory, the FCT Administration earmarked about 35,000 hectares of land for the development of grazing reserves in the territory. In addition, over 310 km track route to enable Fulani herdsmen move freely within the territory without clashing with arable farmers was constructed by the FCT Administration. Moreover, eight veterinary clinics and treatment centres were built at Nyanya, Gwagwalada, Paiko Core, Abaji, old Gawu, Kuje and Bwari for the treatment and vaccination of cattle against various diseases.46 In 1997, for instance, a total of 30,942 animals were treated against various diseases as shown in table 9 below. Similarly, the total of 44,580 animals was vaccinated against various diseases in 1997 as shown in table 9 below.
Livestock: Animal Treatments for 1997
|S/N||Disease condition||1st Qtr||2nd Qtr||3rd Qtr||4th Qtr|
Source: MFCT, “1997 Annual Progress Report” March 1998, p.44.
Vaccination of Livestock in FCT in 1997
|S/N||Disease condition||1st Qtr||2nd Qtr||3rd Qtr||4th Qtr|
Source: MFCT, “1997 Annual Progress Report” March, 1998, p.45.
As part of the extension services, a livestock investigation and breeding centre (LIBC) where modern animal husbandry practices were disseminated was established at Paiko Kore. Table 11 below shows details of number of cattle and sheep while table 12 shows details of birth as well as mortality rate in the centre as at 1997.
Number of Cattle/Sheep in Paiko Kore
|Description||Sex||Opening stock||Add Stock|
Source: MFCT, “1997 Annual Progress Report”, 1998, p.46.
Number of New Birth and Mortality of Animals in Paiko Kore
Source: MFCT, “1997 Annual Progress Report”, 1998, p.46.
|S/N||Disease condition||1st Qtr||2nd Qtr||3rd Qtr||4th Qtr|
The production figures for livestock in the FCT from 1980’s show a steady increase in production. For example, in 1989 a total of 805,000 cattle, 144,750 sheep, 370,000 goats and pigs were produced in the FCT. By 1992, the figure
increased to 805,000 cattle, 144,750 sheep, 370,000 goats and pigs as shown in table 13 below. By 1995, livestock production figures in the FCT increased to 13,953,985 made up of 2,243,332 cattle 1,804964 sheep, 1,278,994 goats and, 953 pigs. Details of the 1995 productions are shown on table
Livestock and Poultry by Species and by Local Government Area, 1992
|Local Govt Area||Cattle||Sheep||Goats||Pigs|
Source: “Federal Capital Territory statistical year Book, 1997” published by Department of Planning, research and statistics, MFCT, Abuja, Nigeria, p.12.
By 1996 livestock production figures increased again to 994,370 cattle, 1,439,400 sheep, 1349,305 goats, 306,090 pigs and 770 horses.47 There w ere significant variations in productions by the different area councils. In 1996, for instance, of the total 994,370 cattle in the FCT, 121780, 161540, 81750, 73800, 77,750 and 577,750 w ere prod uced in Abaji,
Gw agw alad a, Kuje, Kw ali, Bw ari and Municipal Area
Councils respectively. Similarly, of a total of 1,682,910 poultry in the territory, 261,100, 31,750, 170,850, 301,850, 321,170 and 317,750 were produced in Abaji, Gwagwalada, Kuje, Kwali, Bwari and Municipal Area Councils respectively. (See table 15 below).
Source: MFCT, “Federal Capital Territory statistical year Book, 1997”, Department of Planning, Research and Statistics, MFCT, Abuja, Nigeria, 1998, p.12.
Between 1998 and 2002 there were a total of 720,000 cattle, 368,038 sheep, 425,007 goats, 17,963 pigs and 406 horses produced in the FCT. In the same vein whereas the poultry in the territory numbered 1,682,910 in 1996, in 1999 a total of 805,000 cattle 144,750 sheep 370,000 goats and 175,700 pigs were produced. Between 1998 and 2002 a total of 6,087,932 poultry were produced. Tables 16 and 17 give details of Local Govt ArArea Council L.G. Area ea Cattle attle Cattle Sheep Sheep varieties of livestock and poultry productions by species andGoats Goats Goats 40,250 2215Pigs Pigs Pigs 13,800 P2943297oultry Poultry
In the fisheries sector, the MFCT created a department of fisheries to boost fish production. The objective was to meet protein needs of the people of FCT. Fishing implements such as net-home boats and deep freezers were freely distributed to fishermen in the FCT.48 An area office of the fishing department of MFCT was established at Jabi fishing settlement to monitor fishing activities. The lower Usman Dam and Jabi Dams became important fishing areas. There was also the promotion aquaculture to enhance fish production. A fish hatchery complex for the production of fingerlings was constructed in the territory. In addition, a cold storage facility with a capacity of storing 10 tonnes of fish was built by Government. Government constructed ponds in Garki where about 5,000 fingerlings were bred.49
These efforts began to yield positive results and by 1992 a total production of 130.75 and 356.34 tonnes of fish were recorded in Abaji and Municipal Area Councils respectively, the main areas of fish production. By 1993, production increased to 5,000 kg and 21,200 kg in Abuja and Municipal Area Councils respectively. In 1994, the figure for Municipal
Area Council rose to 2,553kg. The figure was 21,889 kg in 1995 and 1,200 in 1996. Since then there was steady increase in production.50
AADP also contributed to the d evelopment of fish production in the FCT. Between 1990 and 1996, for instance, AADP procured and distributed over 5,000 fish fingerling of various species to farmers in the FCT. In addition to 22 bundles of fishing needs and other fishing inputs were equally distributed freely to fishermen in the FCT.51 The combined efforts of the FCT Administration and AADP helped to boost fish production in the FCT. The two main methods of production were extension capture and aquaculture. In 1998 a total of 188.088 kg of fish was produced in Kuje, Bwari and Municipal Area Councils.
By 1999 prod uction increased to 696,431 kg for
Gwagwalada, Kuje, Bwari and Municipal Area Councils. In 2000 production was 197.194 kg for Abaji, Gwagwalada, Kuje,
Bwari and Municipal Area Councils. In 2002 Municipal Area Council alone had a production of 429,240kg. There is no doubt that the fishery sub-sector of agriculture also witnessed some significant changes in the FCT within the period 1976 and 2002. Table 18 below give details of fish productions in the territory to further demonstrate the development in the fishery sub-sector. Fish production was partly sold within the territory to satisfied local demand.
Fish Production in FCT (1998-2002) by Area Councils
|Area Council||Reserve in Hectares|
NB: The above statistical data is fish production through aquaculture and capture.
Source: MFCT, Federal Capital Territory 2002 Statistical Year Book, Department of Planning, Research & Statistics, Garki, Abuja, 2001, p. 2.
Thus it could be concluded that the period under consideration saw the transformation of the crop, livestock and fisheries subsectors of agriculture in Abuja. There was a deliberate policy of the FCT Administration to develop agriculture in the territory to increase the quality and quantity of staple food available to the fast growing population of the FCT. The second reason was to increase the quality of agro-based raw materials needed to stimulate the development of small and medium scale industries. Another reason was to improve existing agricultural infrastructure and to establish new ones in the rural areas.
To achieve these objectives, the FCT Administration concentrated on promoting agricultural development through the primary producers by providing them with inputs, extension services, farm credit, tractor hiring services, land clearing service and the supply of improved seeds and seedlings. In the livestock sub-sector, animals were vaccinated and treated in the veterinary centres at highly reduced cost. Day old chicks as well as rabbits were distributed to farmers. Fulani herdsmen were encouraged to settle permanently in the territory.
In the fishery sub-sector net house boats were distributed, sometimes freely, to farmers by both the MFCT and AADB. More importantly, was the promotion of aqua-culture method of fish production. A major activity of the FCT Administration that popularised and transformed agriculture in the FCT was the organisation of “flagging off” events for each farming season at which occasion fertilizers and other farming implements were distributed to farmers.
Many resident took advantage of the favourable conditions by going into farming. Some farmers migrated from neighbouring states to the territory in order to benefit from the incentives. The local farmers increased sizes and number of plots farmed. Some enterpreneurs started commercial farming. All these resulted in increased production and price low prices of produce. Moreover, the injection of modern techniques into the agricultural sector in the FCT within the period under considerations was unprecedented. More importantly, perhaps, the transformation that took place in the agricultural sector of Abuja economy between 1976 and 2002 was remarkable and sustainable.
*Materials for this chapter are taken from an unpublished earlier work; Julius Otaigbe Unumen, “Socio-Economic changes in Abuja, Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria: 1976 – 2002”, Ph.D Thesis, Department of History and International Studies, Faculty of Arts, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, May 2009.
- Ahmadu Bello University Institute of Administration (ABUIA), “First Report on the Establishment of a Unified System of Administration for the FCT”, Zaria, 1979, p.91.
- ABUIA, “First Report”, pp. 92 – 93.
- ABUIA, “First Report”, p. 93.
- Ministry of Federal Capital territory (MFCT), Abuja: Achievement of Ministry of Federal Capital Territory, 1985 to 1992, Efua Media Associate Ltd; Lagos, 1992, p. 38.
- Ministry of Federal Capital Territory, (MFCT), “1997 Annual Progress Report” Abuja, March 1998, p. 39.
- MFCT, “1997 Annual Progress Report”, p. 39.
- Damis Communications, Corporate Who in Who in the Federal Capital Territory, Lagos, 1996, p. 13.
- MFCT, 1997 Annual Progress Report , p.14.
- Federal Government Printers (FGP), Four Years of Babangida Administration: Achievement and Prospect, August, 1989, p. 83.
- MFCT, “1997 Annual Progress Report”, p. 43.
- MFCT, “1997 Annual Progress Report”, p. 42.
- FGP, Four Years of Babangida Administration, pp. 369 – 370.
- Oral Interview with A.A Adeleye, Retired Director ofAdministration, Federal Capital Development Authority, Lifecamp, Abuja, 3/ 4/ 2007.
- Olusegun Areola, “Abuja in 1996: The Physical Setting”, PaperPresented at the Workshop on “Abuja: Past, Present and Future”, August 1990, pp. 19-20.
- International Planning Associates (IPA), “The Master Plan for Abuja: The New Capital of Nigeria”, U.S.A., 1979, pp. 20 – 21.
- IPA, “The Master Plan for Abuja”, pp. 20 – 21.
- I. Abumere, “Abuja in 1976: Socio-Economic Conditions”, PaperPresented at the Workshop on “Abuja: Past, Present and Future”, August 1990, p. 5.
- Oral Interview with Egbodion Edeoghon, Deputy Director, FederalMinistry of Agriculture, 5/ 5/ 2007.
- Oral Interview with Willis Aghedo, Senior Staff of FCDA, Area 2,Garki Abuja 2/ 3/ 2007.
- Julius Otaigbe Unumen, “Socio-Economic changes in Abuja, FederalCapital Territory of Nigeria: 1976 – 2002”, Ph.D Thesis, Department of History and International Studies, Faculty of Arts, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, May 2009, pp. 265.
- Grace O. Evbuowan et al.,, “Agricultural Development: Issues of Sustainability”, J. O Nnanna et al., (eds.) Contemporary Economic Policy Issues in Nigeria, Central Bank of Nigeria, Abuja, 2003, p. 192.
- L. Garba, “Agricultural Development in the Federal CapitalTerritory, P. D. Dawam (ed.), Geography of Abuja, Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria, Asalu Publishers, Minna Niger State, 2000, p. 110.
- International Biographical Center (IBC), Abuja Handbook Incorporating Yellow Pages, Lagos, 1998, p. 106.
- MFCT, “Abuja: Achievement of Ministry”, p. 42.
- Damis Communications, Corporate Who in Who, pp. 20 -21.
- P. Iloeje, A New Geography of West Africa, Longman, London, Great Britain, 1972, p.109; Garba, “Agricultural Development”, p. 113.
- Ola Balogun, The Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria:Geography of its Development, Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, 2001, p. 85.
- Iloeje, A New Geography, p. 109.
- Joseph Bok Daale, “The Contribution of Abuja Agricultural
Development Project to Fadama Farming in Garda Biyu” B.Sc Long Essay, Department of Geography, University of Abuja, December 2002, p. 25.
- Daale, “The Contribution of Abuja Agricultural DevelopmentProject”, pp. 45 – 50.
- Daale, “The Contribution of Abuja Agricultural Development
Project”, p. 50.
- Balogun, The Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria, p. 81.
- Daale, “The Contributions of Abuja Agricultural DevelopmentProject”, pp. 48 – 50.
- Ministry of Federal Capital Territory (MFCT), “2002 Statistical YearBook”, Department of Planning, Research and Statistics, Garki, Abuja, 2002, p. 36.
- Evbuowan et al., “Agricultural Development”, pp. 192 – 193.
- Oral Interview with Willis Aghedo.
- MFCT, “2002 Statistical Year Book”, pp. 37 – 38.
- Oral Interview with Willis Aghedo.
- Aruwa Mailafiya Filaba, “Empowerment of Indigenous Women inthe Federal Capital Territory”, Abuja, Nigeria”, Ethiop. Journal of Education and Science, 2007, pp. 104 – 111.
- Garba, “Agricultural Development”, pp. 119 – 120.
- ABUIA, “First Report”, p. 101; FGP, Four Years of Babangida, p. 83.
- FGP, Four Years of Babangida, p.94, MFCT, Abuja; Achievement of Ministry, pp. 19 – 20.
- MFCT, Abuja: Achievement of Ministry, p. 40.
- MFCT, Abuja: Achievement of Ministry, p. 42.
- Damis Communications, Corporate Who in Who, p. 13.
- MFCT, 1997 “Annual Progress Report”, 1998, pp. 44 – 45.
- MFCT, “2002 Statistical Year Book”, p. 26.
- MFCT, Abuja: Achievement of Ministry, p. 40. 49. MFCT, Abuja: Achievement of Ministry, p. 40.
- MFCT, Abuja: Achievement of Ministry, p. 25.
- Damis Communications, Corporate Who in Who, 29.